Who pays for a representative in litigation?

Who pays for a representative in litigation?

An important issue for litigants is the question of the litigation economy. It concerns not only the amounts awarded for damages but also the reimbursement of costs to a successful party by a losing party. In this respect, a large, and perhaps the largest, part of the...
SFD loss in the battle for EU trade mark

SFD loss in the battle for EU trade mark

On October 27, 2016, the Polish company SFD S.A., engaged in the trade of nutrients, dietary supplements, and dietary foods, filed an application for registration of an EU trade mark with the European Union Intellectual Property Office. Registration as a mark was...
EU burden of proof guidelines

EU burden of proof guidelines

In March 2021, The Court of Justice of the EU issued an important preliminary ruling in the field of trademark law. It confirms the necessity to respect the principles of EU law before the rules of national law, also in terms of the burden of proof. The case concerned...